Rutile (rutile): the “elf” hidden inside ruby and sapphire

How do we love you, let us count how many ways, because you, some Ruby and Sapphire can flash in the sky at night; Because of you, the sapphire and ruby have a starlight effect, let us witness the magic of nature; when the light is right, you blink at us, so beautiful! You are our guardian, the canary in the coal mine, the tiny thermometer in the couples jewelry cheap.

When human beings are arrogant and feel that they can play God, you dare to stand up and tell us the details, even if it means sacrificing yourself. Only this point, we have to sing a praise song for you. After reading this paragraph, can you guess the identity of this mysterious acclaimed person? Yes, it is a silky wrap that hides inside the ruby and sapphire, like the “Silk Road” silky inclusion—- Rutile.

The problem of rutile is coming again. What is rutile? It is actually a tiny crystal formed by the gemstone when it dissolves. The dissolution usually refers to a uniform mineral solid solution, due to temperature, pressure or both cause a process of simultaneously separating into two or more than two non-mineral phases, or a decomposition reaction of a mineral solid solution subsolid phase.

Rutile is one of the main minerals containing titanium. Rutile is relatively pure titanium dioxide, generally containing more than 95% titanium dioxide, tetragonal crystal system, often with intact square columnar or needle-shaped crystal form, the aggregate is granular or dense block dark red, brown red, yellow or orange, The iron-rich is black; the streaks are yellow to light brown, and the iron rutile is semi-metallic. It is brittle, with a hardness of 6~6.5 and a density of 4.2~4.3g/cm3. It is rich in iron, the highest density is above 5.5g / cm3.

It can be dissolved in hot phosphoric acid, and after cooling and dilution, sodium peroxide can be added to make the solution brown (titanium reaction). Rutile can be produced in gneiss, pegmatite, eclogite (flash) rock and sand. A gemstone crystallized at a higher temperature may contain (or dissolve) a higher concentration of an impurity component. After the temperature is lowered, the ability of the impurities to be contained in the couples jewelry personalized becomes small, causing some of the impurities to start to crystallize. However, the internal structure of the gemstone has many restrictions on the movement of impurities. The impurity atoms cannot move for a long distance, and can only be integrated into a directional array of small crystals such as needles, discs and particles. In fact, the tiny, directional needle-like, granular and platy inclusions found in the gemstones are formed during dissolution. It is precisely because of these inclusions that the gemstones exhibit starlight effects and cat-eye effects in corundum. Intensive rutile fibrous inclusions and hematite. The ilmenite braided inclusion is the best proof that the corundum.

According Edward Gübelinsaid in 1978, Gustav von Tschermak was the first to discover the rutile inclusions in corundum. The density of rutile directly affects the shape of white clouds on the surface of the gemstone. Shallowly, such as a thin tapestry, it will give the corundum a ribbon. Sometimes only a slender line or small particles are visible, or a knife-like shape, and a dart-like rutile will appear. Further research reveals that knife-shaped rutile is mostly V-shaped, concave-shaped enamel crystals, which are laid flat on the bottom of the gemstone. They are very thin. When the fiber optic lamp is used to illuminate the surface of the gemstone, the needle-like fineness visible under these microscopes Minerals interfere with the refraction of light, and you can see the color flash that the gemstone refracts. The acicular cloud described above is defined in the mineralogy as a silky inclusion, which is analogous to their filamentous current structure leading to the starlight and cat’s eye effects of the gemstone. Not only rutile can form filaments inside the corundum, hematite, ilmenite, or bothmixture can also be used.

The rutile is parallel to the second plane of the hexagonal system in the corundum, and the three groups intersect in three directions to form 60/120°. The hematite and ilmenite mixture is parallel to the first plane of the hexagonal column, so if there are both rutile and hematite in the same gem, ilmenite, we may see 12 stars. In addition to affecting whether a corundum has a starlight or cat’s eye effect, the rutile inclusion is one of the characteristics of whether ruby and sapphire are heat treated and identified for synthesis. High temperature heating will make the rutile part into the corundum, but the residual trace can still be seen under the fiber light. Each needle does not combine into a small water droplet, but is broken down into a series of tiny water droplets along the distribution structure before heating. This partially dissolved silky inclusions suggest signs of heating. However, it is easy to confuse the naturally formed micro-dissolved particles with the partially melted filaments after heating. The most distinctive feature of a gemstone that has not been heated is the slender needle-like shape, darts, and arrow-shaped rutile inclusions. When a ruby ​​or sapphire is heated at a high temperature, the filamentous rutile is partially incorporated into the gemstone crystal, and the clarity is improved. But the best friend jewelry for adults will not completely disappear, the more impurities, the more rutile “residue” left after heating will be more obvious. Therefore, rutile is also a “Thermometer” inside the gem. When human beings to act as God, we are aware of their actions.

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